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Knowledge on processes occurring in nature and control of forest environment state allow foresters to diagnose early dangers which may negatively affect the forest. Forest protection is one of the basic fields of activity in a forest district. Each year they undertake actions aiming at retaining forest stability and increasing its natural resistance to destructive factors.

Dangers are divided into three categories:
- biotic - harmful insects, parasitic fungi, herbivorous mammals
- abiotic - droughts, strong winds, early and late slight frosts, downpours, high and low temperatures
- anthropogenic - caused by humans: fires, littering, industrial pollution.